Back to Standards Index: National Council for the Social Studies C3 Framework

Standards Index: D2.His.14.9-12.

Find lessons and videos that align with D2.His.14.9-12.

Analyze multiple and complex causes and effect of events in the past.

Image from How the Military Response to 9/11 Led to Two Decades of War in Afghanistan

How the Military Response to 9/11 Led to Two Decades of War in Afghanistan

Students will learn how the U.S. military response to the 9/11 attacks led to decades of war and a chaotic ending."
Image from Atomic Fears and the Arms Race: Nuclear Testing

Atomic Fears and the Arms Race: Nuclear Testing

Students will learn how the nuclear arms race impacted different aspects of society – including soldiers who were exposed to radiation during early atomic testing – and how it continues to impact them today.
Image from Campaigns and Elections: The 2000 Election

Campaigns and Elections: The 2000 Election

Students will learn why the 2000 presidential election, a race between George W. Bush and Al Gore, was decided by the Supreme Court, and how that led to changes that continue to influence our elections today.
Image from Conspiracy Theories: From JFK’s Assassination to Today

Conspiracy Theories: From JFK’s Assassination to Today

Students will learn about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963, including surrounding conspiracy theories, to explore the deeply ingrained American tendency to mistrust government – a characteristic of our national political culture that is as old as the Revolution, and has been magnified by the internet age.
Image from Coronavirus: Lessons From Past Epidemics

Coronavirus: Lessons From Past Epidemics

Students will learn lessons from history for dealing with the coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic by understanding the connections to previous global public health campaigns to eradicate smallpox and polio.
Image from Dr. Martin Luther King at Gee’s Bend

Dr. Martin Luther King at Gee’s Bend

Students will learn the history of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s fight for voting rights in Gee’s Bend, Ala., a town whose status today shows both the achievements and unfinished work of King’s movement.
Image from Emergence of the AIDS Crisis

Emergence of the AIDS Crisis

Students will learn the historical context of the AIDS crisis in the United States in the 1980s, and where it stands today.
Image from Extremism, ISIS and the Doomsday Cults of the 1970s

Extremism, ISIS and the Doomsday Cults of the 1970s

Students will learn how the wave of extreme cults that swept the U.S. in the 1970s holds surprising lessons for confronting 21st century international terrorism.
Image from From Watergate to Campaign Finance Reform

From Watergate to Campaign Finance Reform

Students will learn how the Watergate break-in and the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon changed the way political campaigns were funded, and what that means for today.
Image from George C. Wallace and the Politics of Segregation

George C. Wallace and the Politics of Segregation

Students will learn how Alabama Gov. George Wallace’s evolving positions on race reveal both the intensity of the white backlash to desegregation during the 60s and the growing political power of the black community during the 70s and early 80s.
Image from McCarthyism: Populism and the Press

McCarthyism: Populism and the Press

Students will learn how Joseph McCarthy rode to power on a wave of anti-communist fears, and how television contributed to both his rise and fall.
Image from Political Debates and the Kennedy-Nixon Debate

Political Debates and the Kennedy-Nixon Debate

Students will learn how televised political debates have impacted modern politics, with an emphasis on the 1960 Kennedy-Nixon debate, and their importance to campaigns and elections today.
Image from Public Policy: Welfare Reform

Public Policy: Welfare Reform

Students will learn how President Bill Clinton signed a welfare bill to reform a program created as part of the New Deal in 1935; and how the bill has reshaped the relationship between poor Americans and the government.
Image from Race, the Media and the Myth of the ‘Crack Baby’

Race, the Media and the Myth of the ‘Crack Baby’

Students will learn how the news media contributed to a false narrative about the fate of babies born to mothers with addiction problems, what that narrative teaches us about the role of perspective and historical context, and how that false narrative continues to influence us today.
Image from Second Wave Feminism, the Equal Rights Amendment and Phyllis Schlafly

Second Wave Feminism, the Equal Rights Amendment and Phyllis Schlafly

Students will learn about the battle in the 1970s between feminists and a group led by the conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly over the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, a proposed Constitutional amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women.
Image from Suffrage for Black Women

Suffrage for Black Women

Students will learn how Black women have often been at the forefront of activism and advocacy relating to ballot access, voter suppression, and the right to vote.
Image from The Arab-Israeli War: America’s Role

The Arab-Israeli War: America’s Role

Students will learn about the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, why the United States remained neutral and how the violation of that neutrality by a small group of Americans played a role in Israel’s victory.
Image from The Birth of the Environmental Movement: DDT and Rachel Carson

The Birth of the Environmental Movement: DDT and Rachel Carson

Students will learn how the U.S. government came to develop environmental protection policies and what that means today as we struggle to balance the risk between pesticides and disease.
Image from The Civil Rights Movement Expands: Busing

The Civil Rights Movement Expands: Busing

Students will learn what happened in 1971 when the U.S. Supreme Court authorized the use of cross-town busing to desegregate schools, and why much of the integration achieved through busing has unraveled in the last two decades.
Image from The Civil Rights Movement: Black Power and Sports

The Civil Rights Movement: Black Power and Sports

Students will learn about protests in the 1960s among black athletes including Jackie Robinson, Muhammad Ali and members of the 1968 U.S. Olympics team, and how their actions relate to modern protestors like Colin Kaepernick.
Image from The Clinton Presidency:  “Zero Tolerance”

The Clinton Presidency: “Zero Tolerance”

Students will learn the social and political forces that led schools to adopt “zero tolerance” discipline policies in the 1980s and 1990s, and the racially unequal consequences of these policies today.
Image from The Cold War Space Race

The Cold War Space Race

Students will learn how the United States space program was fueled by Cold War rivalry, and how the U.S. government leveraged the program’s success in its public relations battle with the Soviet Union.
Image from The Cold War: From the Truman Doctrine to the Berlin Airlift

The Cold War: From the Truman Doctrine to the Berlin Airlift

Students will learn how the Berlin Airlift helped protect Berlin from Soviet control, contributed to the rise of NATO and set the tone for the Cold War.
Image from The Environment and Natural Resources: Wild Horses

The Environment and Natural Resources: Wild Horses

Students will learn about efforts in the early 1970s to enhance environmental regulation and species protections and what happens when those policies lead to conflict – in this case over the wild horse.
Image from The Geography of Racism: Housing Policy

The Geography of Racism: Housing Policy

Students will learn how racism became ingrained in the geography of American cities, and how innovative housing policies and data science are being used to counteract this.
Image from The Korean War

The Korean War

Students will learn how President Harry Truman’s use of presidential power during the Korean War continues to influence U.S. foreign policy and military engagements around the world today.
Image from The Moral Panic Over “Superpredators”

The Moral Panic Over “Superpredators”

Students will learn how politicians of both parties used flawed predictions about the rise of a new class of youthful offenders known as superpredators to justify a series of dramatic changes to the nation’s criminal justice system during the 1990s.
Image from The Space Race: The Challenger Tragedy

The Space Race: The Challenger Tragedy

Students will learn about the development of the nation’s space program, including a seminal event during Ronald Reagan’s presidency: the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger and its lasting aftermath.
Image from The War on Drugs: The New Face of Heroin

The War on Drugs: The New Face of Heroin

Students will learn the origin and racial context of America’s multi-decade war on drugs, and the impact the changing demographics of heroin users have had on the debate and public policy.