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Standards Index: National Council for the Social Studies C3 Framework

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Explain points of agreement and disagreement experts have about interpretations and applications of disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with a compelling question.


Explain how supporting questions contribute to an inquiry and how, through engaging source work, new compelling and supporting questions emerge.


Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple points of view represented in the sources, the types of sources available, and the potential uses of the sources.


Distinguish the powers and responsibilities of local, state, tribal, national, and international civic and political institutions.


Analyze the impact and the appropriate roles of personal interests and perspectives on the application of civic virtues, democratic principles, constitutional rights, and human rights.


Evaluate multiple procedures for making governmental decisions at the local, state, national, and international levels in terms of the civic purposes achieved.


Analyze how people use and challenge local, state, national, and international laws to address a variety of public issues.


Evaluate public policies in terms of intended and unintended outcomes, and related consequences.


Analyze historical, contemporary, and emerging means of changing societies, promoting the common good, and protecting rights.


Analyze the role of citizens in the U.S. po-litical system, with attention to various theories of democ-racy, changes in Americans’ participation over time, and alternative models from other countries, past and present.


Analyze the impact of constitutions, laws, treaties, and interna-tional agreements on the maintenance of national and international order.


Explain how the U.S. Constitution establishes a system of government that has powers, responsibilities, and limits that have changed over time and that are still contested.


Evaluate citizens’ and institutions’ effectiveness in addressing social and political problems at the local, state, tribal, national, and/or international level.


Critique relationships among governments, civil societies, and economic markets.


Evaluate social and political systems in different contexts, times, and places, that promote civic virtues and enact democratic principles.


Evaluate the consequences of human-made and natural catastrophes on global trade, politics, and human migration.


Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions and their political, cultural, and economic dynamics.


Evaluate how political and economic decisions have influenced cultural and environmental characteristics of various places and regions.


Analyze the reciprocal nature of how historical events and the spatial diffusion of ideas, technologies, and cultural practices have influenced migration patterns and the distribution of human population.


Evaluate the impact of economic activities and political decisions on spatial patterns within and among urban, suburban, and rural regions.


Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts.


Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts.


Detect possible limitations in various kinds of historical evidence and differing secondary interpretations.


Use questions generated about multiple historical sources to pursue further inquiry and investigate additional sources.


Critique the appropriateness of the historical sources used in a secondary interpretation.


Analyze multiple and complex causes and effect of events in the past.


Integrate evidence from multiple relevant historical sources and interpretations into a reasoned argument about the past.


Critique the central arguments in secondary works of history in multi-media in terms of their historical accuracy.


Analyze change and continuity in historical eras.


Use questions generated about individuals and groups to assess how the significance of their actions changes over time and is shaped by the historical context.


Analyze complex and interacting factors that influenced the perspectives of people during different historical eras.


Analyze how historical contexts shaped and continue to shape people’s perspectives.


Explain how the perspectives of people in the present shape interpretations of the past.


Analyze how current interpretations of the past are limited by the extent to which available historical sources represent perspec-tives of people at the time.


Apply major theoretical approaches in psychology to social issues.


Describe how biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors influence behavior.


Gather relevant information from multiple sources while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection.


Gather relevant information from multiple sources representing a wide range of views while using the origin, authority, structure, context, and corroborative value of the sources to guide the selection.


Evaluate the credibility of a source by examining how experts value the source.


Identify evidence that draws information directly and substantively from multiple sources to detect inconsistencies in evidence in order to revise or strengthen claims.


Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the strengths and limitations of the arguments.


Critique the use of claims and evidence in arguments for credibility.