Emergence of the AIDS Crisis
- How discrimination against marginalized groups in American culture related to the spread of AIDS.
- How social attitudes, public policy, and medical science interact during the spread of a virally transmitted disease.
- How marginalized groups can respond to their discrimination through activism.
- How the AIDS crisis related to the cultural and political context of the 1980s.
- Social Studies
- U.S. History
- 1980s America
- The Modern Era (1980-Present)
- Ronald Reagan
- AIDS Crisis
In the early 1980s, AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) was initially discovered among homosexual men in Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and some of the public reacted with ignorance and bigotry. Before long, it was clear that women with infected sexual partners and others who shared blood could also be infected. As the epidemic spread, so did the fear. There was no treatment for HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and by 1988, twenty thousand Americans had died.
Although federal health authorities found no evidence of transmission through casual contact, public concern remained high. One poll found that half of Americans wanted to quarantine those with AIDS. Gay rights advocates worked to fight against discrimination and provide more education.
In the mid-1980s the perception of HIV-positive individuals began to change, in part because of the story of Ryan White, a 13-year-old boy in Kokomo, Ind. He was a hemophiliac who accidentally contracted AIDS through a tainted blood transfusion, and became deathly sick.
He recovered in early 1985 but his school district refused to let him attend classes, as many parents, students, and teachers believed (erroneously) Ryan would spread AIDS through casual contact.
So his mother began a lengthy legal fight that eventually forced the family to move to another town so Ryan could go to school. But those struggles also put her son in the national spotlight, where he became a spokesman for AIDS tolerance.
He spoke eloquently to his classmates and on TV talk shows, making clear that AIDS was not a curse or punishment but an infectious disease that anyone unlucky could get.
Over time, the story of AIDS began to change – Congress pushed through the Ryan White Care Act – bipartisan legislation aimed at providing care for people with HIV and AIDS. And soon, new drug regimens offered a sense of hope.
Today, we have the tools to end the disease, but there are still hot spots across the country.
- When AIDS first appeared in the early 1980s, why were its first victims stigmatized?
- How did this stigma make it harder to fight the growth of the epidemic?
- Why was Ryan White so effective at spreading awareness and sympathy for AIDS victims?
- In recent times, what groups are most affected by the ongoing AIDS epidemic?
What lessons could policy makers learn from the government’s slow response to the AIDS crisis?
What are the similarities and differences between the AIDS crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic?
What does the AIDS crisis reveal about the culture and politics of the 1980s, and what does the “silent epidemic” reveal about the culture and politics of current times?
Why are less privileged groups more impacted by the disease?
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequences of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact or develop over the course of a text.
Evaluate public policies in terms of intended and unintended outcomes, and related consequences.
Analyze multiple and complex causes and effect of events in the past.
Analyze complex and interacting factors that influenced the perspectives of people during different historical eras.
Skill 3.C: Compare the arguments or ideas of two main sources.
Theme 5: Politics and power (PCE).